Below in bold, most with a short explanation in brackets, are my suggested changes to this document.
After reading the document through, being impressed and thinking it was very good for mass distribution, I re-read it, with some of the people I’d like to give it to in mind. They include, my relatives from Iran, who have just migrated to Australia and are very political (participated in the Green demos in Iran), some of my work colleagues and friends. With these people in mind, I felt a few changes to wording or explanations of terms would make the document more easily understood.
I’m not sure why we don’t mention the Middle East “Spring” in the first paragraph. It seems like a glaring omission to me, but then I haven’t participated in discussions on our general opinion of world events recently. Perhaps there is some good reason for omitting any reference to what is happening there.
At the end of some paragraphs I have added numbers. My idea for these was that they would refer people to more detailed articles/documents about the topics of these paragraphs. For example in the paragraph with the number 3, readers could be directed to a more detailed article about the whole indigenous question and specific examples of what could be done to wipe out discrimination and racism.
Finally, I do believe it is time for socialists to see socialism as protecting not only the human species but also the animals that we share our planet with and depend on for companionship and enjoyment, a source of food — whether it be bees pollinating or cattle supplying beef — and serve us in various other ways. Many people feel strongly about this, including progressive layers in the environmental movement for example, so our terminology must be inclusive in this respect.
The rise of resistance to dictatorships, corporate rule, military occupation and corrupt politics, which has occurred in the 21st Century, brings new hope for humanity. The revolutions sweeping parts of Latin America and the Middle East [the ME revolutions, whether we like their outcomes or ongoing struggles or not, need to be mentioned here because many people see them as inspiring and as examples of authoritarian governments being challenged and overthrown] which put democracy, the planet, and the rights of all people at their centre, are an inspiration across the globe to all who believe that fundamental social and political change is both possible and necessary.
The current ecological and economic problems facing the world have happened precisely because we live in a political and economic system that puts profits ahead of people and the planet — capitalism. To save ourselves and our planet we need a sharp change of direction towards a new form of social organization based on the needs of people, other species living on this planet and the environments we live in [the battles over whaling, hunting, capitalist methods of slaughtering animals for food and the fact that many species are becoming extinct all concern progressive layers. We need to indicate our awareness of these struggles and also demonstrate that we do not mean a socialism that focuses on the human species to the detriment of other species] — socialism.
Apologists for capitalism have long devoted enormous efforts to arguing against socialism. They argue that it is a completely utopian exercise that flies in the face of human nature; that it will never work; or that it will always lead to bureaucratic dictatorship.
But imagine a society where each individual has the means to live a life of dignity and fulfilment, without exception. Imagine a society where discrimination and prejudice are wiped out, and where all members of society are guaranteed a decent life, the means to contribute to society and a safer planet. 1
This is socialism — a truly humane, a truly ecological society. [“human” society excludes the other species living on the planet.]
Our world is in turmoil
One way or another, the twenty-first century will be decisive for the fate of human civilisation.
Unless greenhouse emissions are swiftly and drastically curbed, scientists tell us, the result in time will be environmental catastrophe on an almost unimaginable scale, threatening the survival of life on the planet.
Alongside this developing ecological disaster, after close to four years, the system shows no sign of being able to escape its worst economic slump since the Great Depression.
As their dilem mas mount, the capitalist response to these challenges is either denial, quack “remedies”, or business as usual and, above all, savage attacks on the welfare and democratic rights of working people. Huge resources are misdirected into war and repression, rather than on solutions to the problems we face.
Climate change is real and immediate
The reality of climate change is manifesting itself in an increasing number of extreme weather events, such as heat-waves, droughts, floods, hurricanes and tornados. Melting ice sheets are resulting in rising sea levels and increased flooding of low-lying areas. Some islands will soon be totally submerged, turning their inhabitants into climate refugees.
These problems disproportionately affect the world's poorest people, who contribute the least to the crisis.
The solution to climate change is known and simple: rapidly phase out the use of fossil fuels and make the switch to renewables. But significant economic interests at the heart of the capitalist system have big investments in coal, oil, gas and nuclear power. Protecting these interests, governments, refuse to take more than token measures to halt climate change
The goal of the big corporations is to secure the greatest possible profits for their super-rich owners — regardless of the consequences to the planet, other species and its people.
[Although the title of this section is climate change, I think it is important to briefly mention the destruction going on to the environment in general. Something like this] … Alongside climate change is the unrelenting destruction of the environment, such as deforestation, pollution of the air, waterways and the soil and the destruction of or harm to many animal species. Both have consequences for the human environment.
Globalisation has hit a brick wall
World capitalism has survived the past half-century largely by accessing cheap labour in poor countries. Globalisation has allowed big capital to maintain profit levels, keeping the high-profit functions of research and development, design and financing in rich countries, while outsourcing manufacturing to the Third World.
Within wealthy countries employment and wage structures have been “hollowed out”, [What does “hollowed out” mean? I don’t really understand. I can guess, but what about migrants, whose English skills will prevent them from guessing? Let’s use clear English. What about simply “employment and wages have been cut”?] with a layer of jobs disappearing from the economy. Manufacturing jobs have been exported and technology has enabled much routine administrative work to become computerised.
These pressures on jobs has allowed employers to reduce real wages and conditions. New jobs are largely in the low-skilled service sector, offering low pay and little job security.
But this model has hit a brick wall. Countries such as China and India now undertake their own Research and Development, design and financing — and now compete with traditional capitalist powers.
Profit rates are being crushed by overproduction, and low paid workers [add “in Australia” because there are many low paid Australians and a reference to what is happening here and now is useful] and low paid and super exploited workers in the third world simply can't afford to buy all the extra goods and services now on world markets.
Rather than invest in useful production, capitalists now seek big returns through financial speculation, creating bubbles in IT stock prices, real estate, or exotic derivatives. And the results have been devastating.
Since 2008, a boom built on financial speculation has been replaced by the worst economic crisis since the 1930s.
In all cases the first task our governments set themselves is to protect the bankers and speculators whose unrestrained greed has been the distinctive feature of the problem. Trillions in stimulus spending have largely finished up in bankers' pockets.
More and more, the capitalists are trying to make working people and the poor pay for the system's failures. Jobs, wages and democratic rights are under attack. Austerity measures and the resulting contractions in consumer spending are simply making the crisis worse.
The crisis won't be fixed by simply disciplining a few selfish speculators, because the problem is with the system that bred them.
The United States, the mainstay of world capitalism, is gripped by seemingly intractable problems. The American elite refuse to consider serious tax increases on the rich, or to curb militarism, so the government has been cutting public spending on health, welfare and education in an attempt (so far unsuccessful) to reduce the budget deficit. Millions of people have been evicted from their homes and real unemployment is around 22%.
In Europe the response of capitalist governments to the crisis is austerity, with pensions and wages cut and further sell-offs of state assets.
Australia: governments avoid climate action
Some commentators claim that Australia's greenhouse emissions are insignificant in world terms. But this is a lie.
Per head of population, Australians are the worst emitters of any large developed nation. In absolute terms, we pump out almost as much carbon dioxide as Italy, with its 60 million people. Take into account coal exports, and our share of world emissions roughly doubles.
Now, Australia's resource moguls plan to increase those exports by as much again. New coal mines are being planned and built across the country. In many instances prime farmland and water sources are being destroyed in the process.
Cheap fossil fuel lies at the base of Australian capitalism's business model, and the big parties know it. The ALP's market-based emissions reduction scheme aims for a tiny cut of 5 per cent by 2020, and the Liberal-National Coalition's misnamed “Direct Action Plan” proposes to reach the same target by paying emitters to cut their pollution.
Rather than a full-scale switch to renewable power sources, the federal ALP government is promoting the large-scale development of gas. The big resource investors are on board. But coal seam gas extraction techniques can do grave environmental damage. And evidence is mounting that when that when venting and leaks of methane — a potent greenhouse gas — are taken into account, energy from gas has a greenhouse impact almost as bad as from coal.
Also taking place is a massive expansion of uranium mining to fuel the nuclear industry. Nuclear power is not the answer to humanity's greenhouse gas dilemma. Weapons proliferation is a serious danger. Current nuclear technology with its potentially catastrophic safety risks, unresolvable waste storage issues, and high greenhouse gas emission footprint is no solution to climate change.
Australia has some of the world's best capacity for renewable energy — solar, wind, wave and geothermal. There are no access or technological barriers to moving to 100% renewable energy in Australia, however the switch to renewable energy across the board is being blocked by those who profit from the polluting industries.
Successive Conservative Coalition [the present federal government is a coalition of different political forces] and Labor governments have refused to invest in clean industries and green jobs, instead choosing to subsidise the fossil fuel industry to the tune of billions each year. Conservative governments in Victoria and NSW have now imposed crippling restrictions on the wind and solar industries.
Economic crisis already here — with worse to come
Compared to Greece and many other countries, Australia so far has had an easy run during the global economic crisis. Decades ago, this country's capitalists found a lucrative niche for themselves as low-cost exporters of raw commodities, especially iron ore and coal. Over the past two years, investment and prices in these sectors have largely held up.
But the luck is running out. Export markets now face an uncertain future. Industrial production in India is falling, and in China, a huge property-price bubble that has kept the economy afloat is deflating fast. Demand for construction steel in China has dropped — and that's bad news for Australian iron ore prices.
Instead of building a diverse economy that can satisfy people's needs broadly, with world's-best education and cutting-edge manufacturing, Australia's capitalists have gone for the easy money in the resources sector, and we are now paying the price.
Already, decades of neoliberalism has made Australia a harsher, crueller, more unequal society. Privatisation, outsourcing, casualisation, restructuring, deregulation, user-pays — all are just terms for shifting wealth from working people to the well-off.
The richest 20% of the population now own 61% of total household wealth, while the poorest 20% own just 1%. Two million people live in poverty, and at least 100,000 are homeless on any given night. Public health care is under-funded, and quality education is increasingly for children whose parents can pay. Pensions and unemployment benefits are far below poverty levels.
Official unemployment is a “low” 5.3%, but at least as many people again who want full-time work can't find it. Millions fall into the categories of “underemployed' and “working poor”. The economic crisis has also meant that most working people are forced to work in stressful, exhausting and even dangerous conditions (note the high number of deaths in the construction industry in particular). While unemployment and underemployment exist, many workers have to complete tasks meant for more than one person.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander oppression remains
Since white colonisation began in 1788 the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population has suffered the trauma of invasion, enslavement, assimilation, genocide, racist exclusion, land theft, the destruction of life, language and culture, poor health care and the denial of basic human rights.
The Rudd government's official apology was a symbolic step forward but remains a hollow gesture. The scandal of black deaths in custody [“black deaths in custody” should be explained because it is short hand for those of us who know what this term means. Apart from migrants many of my students wouldn’t know what this means. So add something like “ie Aboriginal prisoners dying in prisons”] continues and racism is endemic.
The 2007 Northern Territory intervention [also needs to be explained, something like “Key components of the intervention included seizure by the Federal Government of local aboriginal community land leases for a five year period and removal of the permit system that had allowed aboriginal communities to control access to their land") was a massive bipartisan attack on Aboriginal communities. The federal government policy, along with Territory policies banning bilingual education, withdrawing support from homelands and centralising government services in “super shires” and “hub towns” (at the expense of community councils) represents another attack on Aboriginal language and culture, self-determination and land rights.
The Labor government's Stronger Futures legislation deepens and entrenches this neoliberal assimilationist trend for at least a decade.
Paternalistic welfare measures introduced as part of the Intervention are being extended to other parts of the country, particularly areas with large migrant and Aboriginal populations.
Meanwhile, mining companies offer Aboriginal communities investment and “development” in exchange for allowing access to mine on their land.
Billions wasted on corporate handouts and war
Australia is a wealthy, industrially developed First World country. We have the resources to give everyone a decent, comfortable life and provide aid to our poorer neighbours.
Yet calls to address the state of the public healthcare system, housing, welfare and social services are met with the mantra “Where's the money going to come from?”.
While social programs face endless cutbacks, 'corporate welfare' is booming with handouts, tax breaks, concessions, and cosy contracts such as public-private partnerships. The official company tax rate is a very low 30% but many of the big corporations pay far less. Faced with opposition from the mining industry, the federal ALP government watered down its projected [change to “tax on”] mining super-profits.
Billions are wasted on militarism. Up to US$6 trillion — more than the total cost of World War 11 — has been spent on the US-led wars in Iraq and Afghanistan in which Australia has been an enthusiastic participant. These countries have been wrecked and hundreds of thousands of people killed and displaced.
Bipartisan support for the Australia-US war alliance makes Australia complicit in the human and ecological disaster of Iraq and Afghanistan.
Australia has sent police and army units to Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Bougainville and it continues to maintain a military presence in East Timor.
When people flee war, seeking refuge and a new life in our country, they are demonised by the government and put in mandatory detention, at a cost of millions of dollars each year, face the threat of deportation and discrimination.
Our economy must be owned by society
Under capitalism a tiny handful of people — the capitalist class, “the 1%” — control the means of production, distribution and exchange. They own the corporations that own the mines, factories, banks, transport networks, supermarket chains, media empires, and so on. They effectively control the superannuation funds in which workers are forced to invest part of their wages.
The Murdochs, Packers, Harveys, Rienharts, Forrests, Lowys etc. dominate the headlines but behind each of these pillars of Australian capitalism is an army of workers whose stolen labour makes up their profits.
Much of the precondition for these massive profits is created through the capital investment market. In Australia around 75% of this is workers' superannuation contributions.
The economy is a social enterprise. We all depend on it and the labour of working people keeps the wheels turning. But because the capitalists control it they get the profits, and workers' wages never reflect the full value of what they produce. The fight for a decent wage is a constant struggle against entrenched corporate power backed by the state.
The market-based, system is represented in the media as all-powerful, constant and accepted, to the exclusion of any possible alternative. But our economic and social relationships are a human creation, and as such, they can be changed.
But our economy must be socially owned and controlled. Key sectors of the economy should be publicly owned (whether federal, state or municipal). The privatisations of recent decades should be reversed and the public sector massively expanded.
With the economic levers in our hands society could make a conscious plan focused on meeting human needs. Combating climate change and building a sustainable economy would be the most urgent priorities.
Plans would be democratically decided. Workplaces would be controlled by their employees. There would be no obscenely overpaid CEOs and insecure badly paid workers with no say in what happens. The work week would be significantly reduced enabling workers to play a much greater role in political and cultural life.
Democracy under capitalism: formal and limited
Capitalist democracy is more formal than real. Every few years we get to choose which of two neoliberal parties will govern on behalf of Australia's corporate elite. So much of the electoral spectacle is theatre as the media tries to pretend that there are real differences between the pro-corporate Coalition and the equally pro-corporate Labor Party.
The very limited democracy we have does not extend to the economy, the workplace or the state bureaucracy. There, ownership rights, managerial prerogatives, and hierarchy and subordination rule largely unchecked.
The civil liberties we enjoy are real and important. They are a result of past workplace and community-based struggles. But they are fundamentally undermined by severe practical limitations inherent in the way capitalism works.
We generally enjoy the right of free speech, although laws, by-laws and special powers enable the state in some instances to restrict our right to political expression and protest. The corporate media is privately owned and essentially inaccessible to ordinary people.
Workers' ability to fight for better wages and conditions are limited by anti-union laws which criminalise industrial action (except under very limited conditions), outlaw solidarity actions by unions (e.g. secondary boycotts) and make workers and their unions unequal with employers before the law. Meanwhile employers can legally lock out workers without pay, close down industries, and force thousands out of work.
For real democracy, for people's power!
We need a system of popular democracy that empowers the majority of Australian people.
A first step is social ownership of the economy on which we all depend. Real democracy is impossible if one part of society owns the economy and the other part is compelled to work for them.
Parliament requires fundamental change. MPs should carry out their duties on a worker's average wage. They should be subject to recall through a simple process if their electors are dissatisfied. The voting age should be lowered to 16 years.
All public officials in leading positions should be subject to election and recall.
Workers should be able to elect their managers and collectively direct their workplaces, especially in regard to health and safety. Anti-union laws should be scrapped.
The main goals and targets of economic activity should be publicly discussed and voted on.
The mass media should be radically opened up to reflect the interests and concerns of ordinary people.
How will we get there?
How will fundamental social change come about? There is no map or blueprint, but long experience shows that we will get nothing unless we fight for it. The involvement of the majority of people will ensure that real change can be achieved and defended.
The capitalist oligarchy — “the 1%” — and its supporters will fight to the end to defend their privilege and wealth. They will have to be compelled to stand aside. Only the power of the organised and mobilised working-class majority can do this.
The creation of militant, democratic campaigning organisations, determined to win, is crucial. One of the most important of these is a socialist organisation — one that seeks to unite all those who want to fight to end capitalism and that strives to win mass support through its involvement in all the day to day struggles of the exploited and oppressed.
Through working with social movements and unions, sharing political information and analysis, participating in elections, and putting forward solutions to the problems we face, such an organisation can also help to convince the majority of Australians that humanity and the planet requires fundamental social and political change.
Even if popular forces committed to fundamental change win an electoral victory, we will have to mobilise in the streets, workplaces, schools, campuses and neighbourhoods to defend any progressive moves made against the power of the corporate rich.
If we have overcome capitalism, if the economy is socially owned and controlled and we have a system of popular power — then we have a framework for dealing with the ecological and social problems of the past. 1
The most urgent order of business of a real people's government would be an emergency program of action to tackle climate change, including the consequences of decades of inaction, and to build a sustainable economy. 2
A peoples' government would sign a treaty with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, recognising and compensating for their original dispossession and move rapidly to overcome disadvantage at all levels and in all sectors of society. 3
The guiding principle of a post-capitalist society would be the welfare of all people and a stable environment. No-one would be abandoned to their fate, as is the case under capitalism.
Gradually more and more basic goods and services could be provided without charge (healthcare, education, transport, welfare, etc.). These are rights belonging to every human being. 4